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Happy Arabia (representing Latin Arabia felix) was the name previously used by geographers to describe the greater part of the Arabian Peninsula, though restricted by some to modern-day Yemen.
The southwestern corner of the peninsula, enjoying more rainfall, is much greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed more productive fields.
The term "Happy Arabia" is a translation of the Latin "Arabia felix." It was only in later, classical Latin that felix meant "happy." Originally it meant "fertile or productive," and it was in this sense that the term was employed.
In 26 BC Aelius Gallus under Augustus's order led a military expedition to Arabia Felix which ended in the utter defeat of Roman troops.
Part of what lead to Arabia Felix's supposed wealth and importance to the Roman world was its near monopoly of the incense trade to what is now Jordan.